De l’Inde à l’Asie: Skanda tous azimuts — Where has Skanda gone ?

logos_Journée d’études, Jeudi 18 décembre 2014

Maison de l’Asie 22, avenue du Président Wilson, 75116 Paris

Organisé par l’EFEO & l’Atelier thématique « Régionalisme & Cosmopolitisme » CEIAS (EHESS & CNRS)

De gauche à droite: 1. Temple de Cōḻapuram, Tamil Nadu © E. Francis. 2. Autel domestique dédié à Murukaṉ lors du festival de Tai Pūcam, île Maurice © Pierre-Yves Trouillet. 3. Temple d’Eḷavāṉācūrkōṭṭai, Tamil Nadu © E. Francis. 4. Śiva entre Gaṇeśa et Skanda, fin du XIe ou début du XIIe siècle, linteau en grès provenant du temple de Phimai (province de Nakhon Ratchasima, Thaïlande), Musée national de Phimai © Brice Vincent. 5. Grotte 8 à Yungang (« Crête de nuage »), près de la ville Datong, Shanxi, nord de la Chine © Michael D. Gunther / www.art-and-archaeology.com. 6. Mūvarkōyil à Koṭumpāḷūr © E. Francis. 7. Dévot de Murukaṉ portant un kāvaṭi durant le festival de Tai Pūcam, île Maurice © Pierre-Yves Trouillet. 8. Temple de Vāyalūr © V. Gillet.

De gauche à droite: 1. Temple de Cōḻapuram, Tamil Nadu © E. Francis. 2. Autel domestique dédié à Murukaṉ lors du festival de Tai Pūcam, île Maurice © Pierre-Yves Trouillet. 3. Temple d’Elavāṉācūrkōṭṭai, Tamil Nadu © E. Francis. 4. Śiva entre Gaṇeśa et Skanda, fin du XIe ou début du XIIe siècle, linteau en grès provenant du temple de Phimai (province de Nakhon Ratchasima, Thaïlande), Musée national de Phimai © Brice Vincent. 5. Grotte 8 à Yungang (« Crête de nuage »), près de la ville Datong, Shanxi, nord de la Chine © Michael D. Gunther / www.art-and-archaeology.com. 6. Mūvarkōyil à Koṭumpāḷūr © E. Francis. 7. Dévot de Murukaṉ portant un kāvaṭi durant le festival de Tai Pūcam, île Maurice © Pierre-Yves Trouillet. 8. Temple de Vāyalūr © V. Gillet.

Le dieu connu sous les divers noms de Skanda, Subrahmaṇya, Kārttikeya, Murukaṉ, … est représenté dans une vaste aire géographique. Le Mahābhārata nous livre des versions différentes du mythe de sa naissance. De l’Inde des premiers siècles de notre ère il a gagné l’Asie centrale, la Chine et le Cambodge. Il a accompagné aussi ces derniers siècles la diaspora indienne. Il fut et reste révéré en contexte brahmanique, hindou et même bouddhique. Ce sont les multiples facettes de ce dieu régional, devenu cosmopolite, puis prenant d’autres inflexions dans les régions où il est allé que nous explorerons lors de cette journée à travers peintures, sculptures, textes et temples provenant des azimuts que traça ce dieu aux six têtes.

The god variously known as Skanda, Subrahmaṇya, Kārttikeya, Murukaṉ, … is found in an extensive geographical area. The Mahābhārata tells different versions of his birth. From India of the first centuries of the CE, he has travelled to Central Asia, China and Cambodia. In the recent past, he has also accompanied the Indian diaspora. He has been―and still is―worshipped in Brahmanical, Hindu and Buddhist circles. The multiple facets of this regional deity, become cosmopolitan, then reshaped in the regions where he has gone, will be the focus of this day, through paintings, sculptures, texts and temples from the directions taken by this six-headed god.

Programme — Program

9h30 Richard Mann (Carleton University, Ottawa) “Skanda, the Rise of Mahāsenā”

10h30 Ciro Lo Muzio (Sapienza, Rome) “Skanda/Kārttikeya in Buddhist Central Asia”

11h30 Pause

12h Kuo Li Ying (EFEO, Paris) “Skanda en Chine : tradition sculptée, peintures, textes”

12h30 Brice Vincent (EFEO, Paris) “The Triads of Skanda with Śiva and Gaṇeśa: A Khmer Iconographic Innovation (10th—13th century)”

13h Déjeuner

14h30 Charlotte Schmid (EFEO, Paris) “Whose Son? The Multiple Parentage of Skanda/Murukaṉ”

15h Jean-Luc Chevillard (CNRS, Paris) “So Many Names: Murukaṉ in Traditional Tamil Kośas (Tivākaram, Piṅkalam, Cūṭāmaṇi nikaṇṭu …)”

15h30 Emmanuel Francis (CEIAS, CNRS & EHESS, Paris) “Murukaṉ’s Places in the Paratexts of Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai Manuscripts”

16h Pause

16h30 Dominic Goodall (EFEO, Paris) “Skanda in Tantric Ritual”

17h Pierre-Yves Trouillet (CEIAS, CNRS & EHESS) “A Regional God in the Diaspora: the Murukaṉ Worship from South India to Mauritius”

17h30 Valérie Gillet (EFEO) “Murukaṉ on his Elephant: Tales of a Medieval Tamil-Speaking South”

Résumés — Abstracts

Emmanuel Francis (CEIAS, CNRS & EHESS, Paris) “Murukaṉ’s Places in the Paratexts of Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai Manuscripts”

The paratexts (heading, table of contents, etc.) of the manuscripts of the Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai offer, in some cases, correspondences between the six abodes of the god Murukaṉ as described in this sixth- or seventh-century poem and the six “garrisons” (āṟupaṭaivīṭus) of the present-day pilgrimage network of this deity. An examination of these correspondences shows that the manuscript tradition had little interest in making the six abodes of the Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai correspond to actual temples.

Dominic Goodall (EFEO, Paris) “Skanda in Tantric Ritual”

A relatively minor figure in older Śaiva Tantras, Skanda is the focus of numerous works in the corpus of post-twelfth-century South Indian Temple Āgamas and their ancillary literature (paddhatis, etc.). In this brief presentation, five different works that may be called Kumāra-tantra will be briefly distinguished. Some remarks will then be made about what is probably the second-most famous of them, which has been printed three times in the Tamil-speaking South: it appears to be a South Indian Temple Āgama that proposes a thoroughly Śaivised Kaumāra liturgy for Skanda-temples and which champions initiated Ādiśaivas (Śivabrāhmaṇas) as being the sole persons eligible to perform worship for others (parārtha-pūjā) in Skanda-temples.

Richard Mann (Carleton University, Ottawa) “Skanda, the Rise of Mahāsena”

This presentation examines some of the shifts in the representations of Skanda found in numismatic and archaeological sources from the Kuṣāṇa to Gupta eras. Through a close examination of the coin types of the Kuṣāṇa Emperor Huviṣka portraying Mahāsena, Skanda-Kumāra and Viśākha I demonstrate the cultural and material traditions employed by the Kuṣāṇas in their numismatic use of Skanda. These changes in material representations, I suggest, had a significant impact on the post-Kuṣāṇa cult of Skanda in north India.

Pierre-Yves Trouillet (CEIAS, CNRS & EHESS) “A Regional God in the Diaspora: the Murukaṉ Worship from South India to Mauritius”

In this presentation, I will deal with the (re)production of the Murukaṉ worship in the diasporic context of Mauritius. I will begin by presenting briefly the regionalized worship of Murukaṉ in Tamil Nadu. Then I will explain how this worship has been reinstalled in Mauritius by the Tamils and how it currently partakes to the religious expression of their ethnicity. Finally, I will show that Murukaṉ is also worshipped by non-Tamils in Mauritius, and thus that this regional worship is now involved in a broader religious creolity, which typifies the Mauritian identities as well. Hence this paper will address the notions of regionalism, dravidianisation, ethnicity and creolity.


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